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Paper: Humans to Mars Will Cost About “Half a Trillion Dollars” (NASA 2016)

The paper was presented at the 46th International Conference on Environmental Systems and discusses the estimated costs of a human mission to Mars. According to the document, the cost of the first human mission to Mars could be around “half a trillion dollars”. This estimate is consistent with most past estimates. Using mass-cost estimating factors based on the International Space Station (ISS) and other experiences, the cost of life support for the Mars mission could be two billion dollars or more. The cost to go to Mars is expected to be two or three times that of either Apollo, space shuttle, or ISS and could be as much as all three together.

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Manned Mars Landing in 1982: A Look at the Mission Plan Proposed in 1969

In a landmark presentation to the Space Task Group on August 4, 1969, Dr. Wernher von Braun, one of the leading figures in rocket development and space exploration, outlined a comprehensive plan for a manned Mars landing. This article explores the contents of that presentation, revealing the vision, strategy, and scientific goals behind this ambitious mission.

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The US Air Force Manned Orbital Laboratory: A Legacy of Innovation

The Manned Orbital Laboratory (MOL), an ambitious project by the U.S. Air Force, remains an important footnote in the history of human space exploration. This program, which ran from 1963 to 1969, aimed to develop a manned space station with a dual purpose: scientific research and military reconnaissance. Although the MOL never reached operational status, its advances and the human capital it developed made significant contributions to America’s subsequent space endeavors.

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