What science did the Axiom Mission 1 perform while on the ISS?

The Axiom Mission 1 operated 25 ISS National Laboratory sponsored experiments. What were those experiments and what were the expected scientific benefits? The following sections answer those questions.

AWS Snowcone (Ax-1)

AWS Snowcone Cloud Edge Compute Demonstration (AWS Snowcone Ax-1) during the private astronaut mission (PAM) Axiom-1 (Ax-1) demonstrates technology to screen private astronaut images and identify those that may contain sensitive information not for public release. The technology includes reduction of large-scale data and processing of data near the source, known as edge computing, capabilities integral to future space exploration.

Cardioprotection (Ax-1)

The Space Frontier and Extraterrestrial Cardioprotection (Cardioprotection Ax-1) performs cardiovascular evaluation on Axiom Mission 1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM) crew members. Human research in space has, to date, focused on professional astronauts, but as spaceflight opportunities expand, more diverse populations experience exposure to the space environment. The study supports protection of heart health in this expanding population.

Sansori (Ax-1)

Short Term Anatomical and Biomechanical Changes of the Eye in Microgravity on Axiom-1 Mission (Sansori Ax-1) assesses eye and vision changes in crew members on the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM). Many but not all astronauts experience changes in eye anatomy and visual acuity known as Space Associated Neuro-Ocular Syndrome (SANS), and a better understanding of the condition could support development of countermeasures.

Microbiome in Space (Ax-1)

An Evaluation of the Human Urinary Microbiome and Urinary Symptoms Throughout a Short-Duration Space-Flight [Microbiome in Space (Ax-1)] evaluates whether space alters the human urinary tract microbiome, or community of microorganisms, during the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM). Urinary tract infections have previously affected astronauts, and microbiome alterations may increase the risk. Results from this investigation could support development of countermeasures for future spaceflight.

Earth Observation (Ax-1)

The Earth Observation (Ax-1) investigation on the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM) uses images taken from the International Space Station to study changes in weather and other planetary features; natural events, including fires and volcanic eruptions; and human features such as agriculture and urbanization. The project also plans to take images of the Great Lakes Basin to enhance the ongoing Great Lakes Project sponsored by the Royal Canadian Geographical Society (RCGS). An important source of water in Canada and the US, the Basin faces stress from climate change, urbanization, and other factors.

MedChecker (Ax-1)

MedChecker (Ax-1) demonstrates software that uses image recognition to identify medications from personal medical kits and test medical kits aboard the International Space Station. This augmented reality (AR) tool could enable crew members to quickly administer appropriate medications without input from medical professionals. Results could support increased self-sufficiency on future space exploration missions.

Microgravity Pain Sensation (Ax-1)

Astronauts can experience musculoskeletal pain during or after flight, perhaps because the integrity and function of the musculoskeletal system requires the loading provided by gravity. Pain in Space [Microgravity Pain Sensation (Ax-1)] assesses how short-term exposure to microgravity affects pain sensation, biomechanics, bone physiology, and the musculoskeletal system during the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM). Results could contribute to improved health and well-being for crews on future missions.


International Space Station Archaeological Project – Sampling Quadrangle Assemblages Research Experiment (SQuARE) focuses on different kinds of material culture – objects and built spaces together with their symbolic and social meanings. Results could help define the significance of material culture in a space habitat and ultimately help space agencies understand how different objects and spaces are used over time.

ILAN-ES (Ax-1)

Imaging of Lighting and Nighttime Electrical Phenomena from Space (ILAN-ES) [ILAN-ES (Ax-1)] seeks to collect images from space of lightning and Transient Luminous Events (TLE) during the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM). These electrical phenomena above thunderstorms on Earth include blue jets, gigantic jets, elves, and red sprites. Combining observations from the International Space Station with a global network of ground-based cameras, researchers plan to calculate the energy of observed TLE, reconstruct their 3D structures, identify parent-lightning and electrical parameters, and track lightning activity and cloud illumination patterns from different ranges and angles.

Changes in Sleep and the Microbiome (Ax-1)

Changes in Sleep and the Microbiome before, during, and after Short Duration Spaceflight (Changes in Sleep and the Microbiome [Ax-1]) examines sleep quantity and quality of astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight on the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM). The investigation also examines effects on the human gut microbiome or microbial community and the environmental microbiome, and records factors associated with cardiac and metabolic health, including body mass index, heart rate, and blood glucose. Sleep contributes to overall health and well-being; inadequate sleep can increase risk of certain diseases.

BioMonitor (Ax-1)

BioMonitor (Ax-1) monitors the vital signs of crew members on the private astronaut mission (PAM) Axiom-1 (Ax-1) and assesses the effects of spaceflight on their hearts, lungs, and circulatory systems. The Ax-1 astronauts wear the Bio-Monitor, an instrument onboard the International Space Station, during day-to-day activities, rest, and exercise. The investigation demonstrates real-time acquisition and transmission of data from the Bio-Monitor and the potential for adapting the platform to provide autonomous health monitoring of crew members on future Artemis missions.

Holoportation Behavioral (Ax-1)

Aexa’s Holographic Teleportation Behavioral (Holoportation Behavioral) demonstrates two-way communications between crew members on the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM) to the International Space Station and ground using a mixed-reality application. The technology includes a HoloLens 2 Artificial Reality headset and HoloWizard mixed reality application to provide users 360-degree holographic images of each other. This capability represents a significant advancement in communication for remote settings.

Modeling Tumor Organoids in LEO (Ax-1)

Developing Modeling Tumor Organoids in LEO (Ax-1) during the private astronaut mission (PAM) Axiom-1 (Ax-1) demonstrates processes for on- orbit pre-cancer and cancer cell culture, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and real-time data transfer in support of future pre-cancer and cancer stem cell research. The investigation seeks to develop immune dysfunction and pre-cancer stem cell predictive models. Such models could inform and accelerate the development of countermeasures and enhance crew safety on future space missions as well as provide tools for detection of, and therapies for, pre-cancer, cancer and a variety of other diseases on Earth.


Tessellated Electromagnetic Space Structures for the Exploration of Reconfigurable, Adaptive, Environments (TESSERAE) (TESSERAE Ax-1 ) on the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM) tests self-assembly and docking of an autonomous, self-assembling robotic swarm of tiles in microgravity. The investigation helps assess feasibility of construction of satellites and space habitats on orbit to support future missions to the Moon and Mars and space tourism in low-Earth orbit.

At Home in Space (Ax-1)

Culture, Values and Environmental Adaptation in Space [At Home in Space (Ax-1)] on the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM) assesses culture, values, and psychosocial adaptation of astronauts to sharing a space environment with multinational crews. Whether crew members feel at home in space and develop a shared space culture could affect the success of future long-duration missions. Ax-1 crew members complete a questionnaire battery before, during, and after flight to evaluate individual and culturally-related differences, family functioning, coping with stress, and post-experience change.

Neurowellness in Space (Ax-1)

Neurowellness in Space: A Technology Demonstration into the Viability of Long-term Monitoring of Brain Dynamics and Cognitive Function in Space Eco-Systems (Neurowellness in Space [Ax-1]) tests using a portable electroencephalography (EEG) headset to measure differences in brain activity in microgravity on members of the Axiom 1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM). The device is easier to set up than previous systems and measures both ongoing and task-related brain activity. Data on microgravity-induced differences in cognitive performance could help predict neural changes on future long-term space missions.

JAMSS Photocatalyst (Ax-1)

JAMSS Photocatalyst (Ax-1) during the private astronaut mission (PAM) Axiom-1 (Ax-1) demonstrates using a photocatalyst device to clean the cabin air and remove odor caused by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The device converts VOCs into carbon dioxide and water. The device and a non-photocatalyst control device operate for at least four weeks and then return to Earth for analysis of the photocatalyst device’s effectiveness.

Nano ISS Antenna (Ax-1)

Nano ISS Antenna (Ax-1) on the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM) tests deployment of a folded antenna used to provide high bandwidth communications. Miniaturized satellite electronics and sensors can provide valuable scientific and navigation capabilities, but small, simple antennas cannot transmit large quantities of data, limiting the usability of small satellites.


The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) Space Diagnostics (Ax-1 CRISPR) tests CRISPR-based genetic identification on the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM). CRISPR is a genome editing system that allows its users to detect and manipulate specific DNA and RNA sequences in living cells of diverse species. This technology could provide rapid and accurate detection of pathogens and contaminants on future long-term space missions.

Reflective Eye Test (Ax-1)

Digital Tablet Eye Vision Test for Space Missions [Reflective Eye Test (Ax-1)] on the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM) evaluates visual function before, during and after spaceflight using well-tested software on a hand-held device. Results are expected to provide information on the effects of weightlessness on visual and other brain functions.

Aging and Heart Health (Ax-1)

Aging and Heart Health on the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM) analyzes human cells for genetic markers of cellular aging and explores how cardiac-like cells adapt to microgravity. A better understanding of the mechanisms of cellular aging and cardiac adaptation could support crew health and success on future missions.

Fluidic Space Optics (Ax-1)

Fluidic Space Optics (Ax-1) during the private astronaut mission (PAM) Axiom-1 (Ax-1) studies liquid behavior in microgravity. It examines how this environment affects deployment and solidification of liquid polymers into optical components, serving as a proof of concept for large scale liquid space telescopes. The investigation also provides an educational demonstration of the physics of fluid mechanics in microgravity.

AstroRad Vest (Ax-1)

Radiation produced by solar particle events in space has the potential to adversely affect crew health. AstroRad Human Factors and Ergonomics Research (AstroRad Vest Ax-1) uses private astronaut mission (PAM) crew members on Axiom-1 (Ax-1) to study the efficiency and ergonomics of a wearable device to shield sensitive organs and tissues from this radiation. The vest is designed to provide radiation protection as well as to be comfortable to wear and not interfere with an astronaut’s regular activities.

Urinalysis in Space (Ax-1)

Urinalysis in Space (Ax-1) performs urinalysis using an iPad and a proprietary kit on the Axiom 1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM). The investigation focuses on a test commonly used to measure kidney function and provides immediate results, eliminating the need to return samples to Earth for analysis.

Monitoring Stress (Ax-1)

Elevated stress can affect essential functions controlled by the central nervous system (CNS) such as memory, ability to concentrate, sleep, and fine-motor skills. Evaluating Stress Levels Among Space Travelers by Monitoring Changes In Their Central Nervous System Functions [Monitoring Stress (Ax-1)] on the Axiom-1 (Ax-1) private astronaut mission (PAM) examines whether the development of emotional distress can be detected by continuous monitoring of basic CNS functions. Results could support development of tools for early intervention to help maintain the well-being and performance of crew members on future long-duration missions. The work also could have applications for hospitalized or quarantined individuals on Earth.

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