Types of Space Weather
The Sun is a dynamic star that experiences a wide range of activities and events. Here are some of the most common types of sun activities and events:
A solar flare is a sudden, intense burst of energy that occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released. Solar flares can release the equivalent of millions of hydrogen bombs in just a few seconds and are the most powerful explosions in the solar system. They can cause radio blackouts and disrupt satellite communications and navigation systems.
Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)
These are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun's corona. CMEs can release billions of tons of matter into space. When a CME collides with the Earth's magnetic field, it can cause geomagnetic storms and auroras.
This is a stream of charged particles, mainly electrons and protons, that are constantly flowing from the Sun. When the solar wind interacts with the Earth's magnetic field, it can cause geomagnetic storms and disrupt satellite and communication systems.
These are disturbances in the Earth's magnetic field caused by the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetic field. They can cause auroras, power outages, and disruption of satellite and communication systems.
These are bursts of high-energy particles, such as protons and electrons, that can be harmful to astronauts and spacecraft.
These are disturbances in the ionosphere, which can affect radio and navigation systems.
Space Weather Events Classification
The space weather scale classifications provide a useful tool for assessing the potential impact of space weather events on Earth's technological systems and helping to mitigate any negative effects.
The space weather scale classifications are a series of numeric values used to categorize the severity of space weather events based on their potential impact on Earth's technological systems. There are several different space weather scales, but the most commonly used are the NOAA Space Weather Scales.
There are four main categories in the NOAA Space Weather Scales, each with its own set of descriptors and numerical values:
This category measures the disturbance of the Earth's magnetic field caused by solar activity. The scale ranges from G1 (minor) to G5 (extreme), with each level indicating increasing severity of the storm's effects on Earth.
Solar Radiation Storms
This category measures the level of high-energy particles emitted by the Sun during a solar flare. The scale ranges from S1 (minor) to S5 (extreme), with each level indicating the potential impact on satellite operations, astronaut safety, and airline crew and passengers.
This category measures the interference with radio communication caused by solar flares. The scale ranges from R1 (minor) to R5 (extreme), with each level indicating the potential impact on satellite operations, navigation systems, and high-frequency radio communication.