The Transformation of the Space Economy From Bespoke to Standard Products


The space economy has witnessed rapid evolution in recent years, spurred by both public and private investments. As the sector expands, there is a noticeable trend of moving from bespoke to more standardized products, which is reshaping the way the industry approaches space exploration and utilization. This article discusses the implications of this transition, the factors driving it, and provides examples of this trend in action.

The Bespoke Era

In the early days of space exploration, the industry was dominated by government-funded bespoke projects, which involved tailor-made solutions for specific missions. These one-of-a-kind products were characterized by high costs, long lead times, and limited reusability. While these bespoke solutions were essential for initial breakthroughs, they ultimately created barriers to entry for smaller players and limited the industry’s growth potential.

The Shift to Standardization

As the space industry matures and competition increases, the emphasis has shifted from bespoke to standardized products. This transition is driven by several factors:

Cost Reduction

Standardized products benefit from economies of scale, reducing production costs, and making space more accessible to a broader range of participants. This cost reduction has the potential to further catalyze the growth of the space economy.

Increased Reliability

The repetitive use of standardized products allows for iterative improvements, resulting in increased reliability and performance. This reliability is essential for expanding the scope of space missions and promoting the commercialization of space.


Standardization facilitates the development of interoperable systems that can work together seamlessly. This interconnectivity enables more collaborative missions and partnerships, which can lead to more efficient and cost-effective solutions.

Accelerated Innovation

As the industry moves towards standard products, companies can focus more on innovation, rather than reinventing the wheel for each mission. This focus on innovation will likely drive advancements in technology and capabilities.

Examples of the Trend

The following examples illustrate the shift from bespoke to standardized products in the space economy:

SpaceX’s Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy Rockets

SpaceX revolutionized the space launch industry with its reusable rockets. These rockets are based on standardized components, which significantly reduces manufacturing costs and increases reliability. Moreover, the reusability of the rockets drives down the cost of each launch, making space access more affordable for a wide range of customers.


CubeSats are small, standardized satellites that can be easily mass-produced and launched into orbit. Their modular design allows for rapid development and deployment, making them an attractive option for academic institutions, startups, and even larger organizations looking to utilize space-based capabilities.

International Docking System Standard (IDSS)

The IDSS is a global standard for spacecraft docking systems, which promotes interoperability among different spacecraft. This standardization enables more efficient and collaborative missions, such as the Lunar Gateway project, which involves multiple international partners working together to establish a lunar orbit outpost.


The trend of moving from bespoke to standardized products is transforming the space economy, making it more accessible, efficient, and innovative. This shift has the potential to unlock new opportunities, attract new players, and propel the industry to new heights.