Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators: Powering Space Exploration


Space exploration and subsequent economic activities have always been deeply intertwined with technological advancements. Of these, power generation technology has been a cornerstone. One such technology that has long been a reliable workhorse in space exploration is the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). RTGs have been instrumental in powering some of the most ambitious space missions and continue to be relevant in the burgeoning space economy. This article discusses the functioning of RTGs, their use in space missions, and their relevance to the space economy.

RTGs: A Brief Overview

RTGs are a type of nuclear battery that generate electricity from the natural decay of radioactive isotopes, usually plutonium-238 (Pu-238). The heat generated from this radioactive decay is converted into electrical energy through thermocouples. This process, known as the Seebeck effect, involves generating a voltage difference through the temperature gradient between the hot radioactive material and the colder outer casing of the generator.

RTGs are highly reliable and can provide power for long-duration space missions, as they do not rely on solar energy, which can be inconsistent or entirely unavailable in certain parts of the solar system. Moreover, their robustness allows them to operate in extreme environments, including those featuring high radiation levels or low light conditions.

RTGs in Space Missions

RTGs have been used in numerous space missions since the 1960s. The Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, New Horizons, and the Mars Curiosity and Perseverance rovers are just a few examples of missions that have utilized RTGs. These missions have provided us with invaluable data about our solar system, enhancing our understanding of the universe.

Mars Perseverance rover RTG power source
Source: NASA

RTGs are particularly suitable for missions in the outer solar system, where sunlight is weak, making solar panels inefficient. The Voyager spacecraft, for example, have traveled billions of miles from Earth, into interstellar space, powered by RTGs. Similarly, the Mars rovers have successfully operated in Mars’ harsh, dust-filled environment thanks to the robustness of RTGs.

RTG Production

The production of RTGs is a complex process that requires handling radioactive materials and thus is generally managed by government agencies rather than private companies. In the United States, the Department of Energy (DoE), particularly the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems and its national labs, is responsible for the production of RTGs.

The Pu-238 used in RTGs is produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The actual RTG devices used in NASA missions, such as the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), are assembled by specialized contractors. For the MMRTG used on the Mars Curiosity and Perseverance rovers, Aerojet Rocketdyne was responsible for the thermoelectric generator, while Teledyne Energy Systems provided the heat source.

In Russia, RTGs have been produced by the State Atomic Energy Corporation (ROSATOM) and its subsidiary organizations.

Challenges and Future Development

While the potential of RTGs is significant, challenges exist. The production of Pu-238 is complicated, expensive, and involves handling highly radioactive materials. The risk of a launch failure causing a radioactive spill also needs to be managed. Furthermore, the efficiency of RTGs is relatively low, with most designs converting only about 7% of the heat into electricity.

However, research is ongoing to overcome these challenges. Enhanced RTGs, such as Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (MMRTGs) and next-generation models like the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), are improving power output and efficiency. Moreover, in an effort to increase availability of isotopes supply, and reduce cost, there is ongoing research into alternative isotopes like Americium-241 which could potentially reduce the dependence on Pu-238.

There’s also a broader, societal dimension to consider. As the space economy grows, issues of space debris, nuclear safety, and planetary protection become more important. The use of nuclear power in space needs to be carefully regulated and responsibly managed to prevent accidents, contamination, and conflict.

Relevance to the Space Economy

As we transition from an era of space exploration to one of space economy, the use of RTGs is expected to continue. The space economy includes activities like asteroid mining, space manufacturing, and the establishment of lunar or Martian bases, all of which require reliable, long-term power sources.

  • Space Mining and Manufacturing: RTGs could power machinery for asteroid mining operations or provide energy for on-site manufacturing. Asteroids contain resources like platinum, nickel, and iron, which could be used for in-space manufacturing, reducing the need for costly launches from Earth.
  • Human Habitats: Establishing permanent human presence on the Moon or Mars requires a reliable power source. RTGs, with their long lifespan and robustness, could serve as an energy source for habitats, life support systems, and communication equipment.
  • Deep Space Missions: As commercial entities become more involved in deep space missions, RTGs are expected to remain the go-to power source for probes venturing into the outer solar system or beyond.


RTGs have been, and continue to be, an indispensable power source for space missions. Their longevity, reliability, and ability to function in harsh environments make them ideal for the next phase of space exploration and economic activity.