An Introduction to Low Thrust Propulsion for Satellites

The tortoise of satellite propulsion


In recent years, the rapid growth of satellite-based applications — including communication, earth observation, weather prediction, scientific investigation, and more — has led to significant advancements in satellite propulsion technologies. Among these, low thrust propulsion systems have grown significantly in importance due to their unique advantages and potential for future space missions. This article provides an introduction to low thrust propulsion for satellites, reviewing its fundamental principles, technologies, benefits, limitations, and potential future developments.

Understanding Low Thrust Propulsion

Low thrust propulsion refers to the method of satellite propulsion that provides small, continuous force over extended periods to change a spacecraft’s velocity and trajectory. Contrary to high thrust propulsion systems that deliver large amounts of thrust in a short time, low thrust systems work on the principle of sustained thrust, leading to gradual but significant changes in spacecraft velocity and trajectory over time.

In essence, low thrust propulsion can be likened to the tortoise in Aesop’s fable, “The Tortoise and the Hare,” where slow and steady progress wins the race. Although the immediate thrust provided is small, the cumulative effect over time can be substantial, enabling complex maneuvers and extended missions.

Types of Low Thrust Propulsion

Low thrust propulsion technologies can be broadly divided into two categories based on the type of propellant used: chemical and electric propulsion.

Chemical Propulsion

Chemical propulsion systems rely on chemical reactions to produce thrust. Monopropellant and bipropellant systems are the most common types in this category. In monopropellant systems, a single propellant decomposes or reacts with a catalyst to produce high-pressure gas, while bipropellant systems involve the reaction between two separate propellants.

Although chemical systems can provide higher thrust than electric systems, they are less efficient in terms of specific impulse (a measure of propellant efficiency), making them suitable for shorter missions or maneuvers that require larger immediate changes in velocity, like orbit insertion.

Electric Propulsion

Electric propulsion systems, on the other hand, use electric energy to accelerate propellants. They are highly efficient, providing a much higher specific impulse than chemical systems, and can therefore sustain thrust over longer periods. There are three primary types of electric propulsion: electrothermal, electrostatic, and electromagnetic.

  • Electrothermal Thrusters use electric power to heat a propellant, which expands and is expelled to create thrust. Examples include resistojets and arcjets.
  • Electrostatic Thrusters use electric fields to accelerate ions or charged particles. The most common types are gridded ion engines and Hall effect thrusters.
  • Electromagnetic Thrusters accelerate propellant using magnetic fields. Pulsed inductive thrusters and magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters are examples of this type.

Benefits of Low Thrust Propulsion

Low thrust propulsion offers several benefits:

  • Fuel Efficiency: Low thrust systems, especially electric propulsion, are highly fuel-efficient due to their high specific impulse. This means they can achieve a greater change in velocity for a given amount of propellant, making them ideal for long-duration missions.
  • Extended Mission Lifetimes: The fuel efficiency of low thrust systems allows for prolonged mission lifetimes. Satellites can perform station-keeping maneuvers to maintain their orbits for longer, or undertake extended exploratory missions.
  • Flexibility in Trajectory Design: Low thrust propulsion allows for continuous fine-tuning of the spacecraft’s trajectory, enabling complex maneuvers like spiral trajectories, orbit-raising or lowering, and interplanetary transfers.
  • Reduced Launch Mass: The high specific impulse of low thrust systems can reduce the propellant mass required for a mission, potentially decreasing the overall spacecraft mass and therefore the launch costs. This is particularly advantageous for small satellites and CubeSats, where mass and volume constraints are significant.

Limitations of Low Thrust Propulsion

While low thrust propulsion offers numerous advantages, it also has some limitations:

  • Longer Transit Times: The slow and steady nature of low thrust propulsion can lead to longer transit times for spacecraft to reach their destination or desired orbit. This can be a disadvantage for missions with strict timelines.
  • Power Requirements: Electric propulsion systems, while efficient, require substantial electrical power. This can be a limiting factor, especially for smaller satellites which have limited power generation capabilities.
  • Complex Guidance and Navigation: The continuous thrusting nature of low thrust propulsion necessitates more complex guidance, navigation, and control systems. Determining optimal thrusting strategies can also be computationally challenging.
  • Limited Thrust: Despite the long-term benefits, the immediate thrust provided by these systems is relatively low. Thus, they are unsuitable for missions requiring quick, large changes in velocity or direction.

Future Developments

Low thrust propulsion technologies have considerable potential for future advancements, with ongoing research and development in several areas:

  • Advanced Electric Propulsion Systems: Newer electric propulsion technologies, such as the NASA-developed NEXT-C (NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster-Commercial) and the X3 Hall-effect thruster, promise to deliver higher thrust levels while maintaining high specific impulse, enabling faster transit times for deep space missions.
  • Green Propellants: With growing concerns about the environmental impact of traditional propellants, research is underway to develop ‘green’ propellants that are less toxic and more environmentally friendly. These propellants, in combination with low thrust propulsion systems, can make space missions more sustainable.
  • Nuclear Propulsion: For future long-duration, deep space missions, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) could provide a viable solution. They offer high thrust and high specific impulse, though there are significant technical and regulatory challenges to be overcome.


Low thrust propulsion systems represent a key technology for the future of space exploration and satellite deployment. Their high fuel efficiency, ability to support extended mission lifetimes, and flexibility in trajectory design make them an attractive option for a wide range of missions. While challenges exist, particularly in power requirements and transit times, ongoing research and development promise steady advancements in this field.