The Space Doctrine Publication 3-100 Space Domain Awareness (SDA), issued in November 2023 by the United States Space Force (USSF), outlines the strategic framework and operational doctrine for achieving and maintaining space domain awareness. This doctrine is integral to the effective use of military spacepower in support of the USSF's cornerstone responsibilities. It provides guidance for planning and employing Space Force forces within a broader joint force, emphasizing non-directive advice for informed decision-making and strategy development.
SDA is crucial for ensuring the ability to operate safely in space, protecting and defending the freedom to operate in this domain, and contributing to international security and stability. The publication discusses the importance of SDA, the space environment, adversary use of space, and commercial space activities. It highlights the exponential rise in the number of objects in space, including operational payloads and debris, and emphasizes the need for accurate and timely awareness of space activities and any related activities in other domains or operational environments.
Key aspects of SDA include understanding and characterizing the behavior of physical objects in space, assessing threats, monitoring the natural space environment, and characterizing the use of the electromagnetic spectrum in space operations. The doctrine also covers space situational awareness (SSA) capabilities, which involve the use of various sensors to track and identify space objects. These sensors include radar systems (continuous wave, dish, and phased array radars) and optical and infrared sensors.
SDA's role in the joint operational environment is highlighted, with emphasis on mission assurance, threat warning and assessment, space battle management, and operations in the information environment. The publication underscores the importance of cooperation and collaboration with partners and space-faring entities for effective SDA and overall spaceflight safety.
Overall, the Space Doctrine Publication 3-100 presents a comprehensive approach to understanding, monitoring, and responding to the dynamic and increasingly congested space domain, underscoring the importance of space domain awareness in contemporary military operations and international security.