Here is a summary of the key points from the report in the context of the space economy:
- The 2023 Annual Report to Congress from the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission provides an overview of developments in U.S.-China relations, including in areas relevant to the space economy such as technology, trade, and security. It notes China's ambitions in space and advancements in capabilities like rendezvous and proximity operations that could pose risks.
- China views space as a critical domain, both economically and militarily, and has undertaken major initiatives like the Belt and Road Initiative to expand global transportation and infrastructure networks that could support space launch and related capabilities.
- China's space program is tied to its broader national development goals, so its ongoing military modernization and space activities are commensurate with its economic aspirations like becoming a major space power by 2045.
- The U.S. has taken steps to address risks related to China's space program, including export controls on space and missile technology as well as investment screening for national security risks. However, effectively competing with China's space ambitions remains a challenge.
- China's space program and development of capabilities like ASATs and directed energy weapons has led to increased space debris, presenting environmental and sustainability issues for the responsible use of space.
- Issues like technology transfer controls, diverging national interests, and China's state-led approach to space development present challenges for U.S.-China cooperation in the space economy. But some opportunities may exist in select areas like space sustainability.
In summary, the report highlights how China's space program is tied to its national development goals and presents both opportunities and challenges for the global space economy. Managing risks, sustaining access to space, and finding potential areas for cooperation will be key issues going forward.