The Disruptive Innovation Model
Disruptive innovation, a concept introduced by Harvard Business School professor Clayton M. Christensen in his 1997 book “The Innovator’s Dilemma,” refers to a process in which a new product, service, or technology challenges and eventually overtakes the incumbent by catering to a different or overlooked market segment, often with a more accessible, affordable, or convenient solution. This type of innovation can have a transformative impact on entire industries, leading to a shift in market dynamics and sometimes even rendering established products or services obsolete.
The model consists of four key stages:
- Incumbents focus on sustaining innovations: Established companies focus on improving their existing products or services to maintain and grow their market share. These innovations generally cater to their existing customer base, often addressing their most demanding needs.
- Disruptive innovations emerge: Newcomers develop simpler, more affordable, or more accessible products or services that initially target a niche or underserved market segment. These innovations often lack the performance or features that the incumbent’s core customers value, leading to their dismissal or underestimation.
- Market adoption and growth: Over time, the disruptive innovation gains traction in its target market, as customers recognize the benefits of the new product or service. The innovation may also improve, eventually offering features or performance that rivals or even surpasses the incumbents.
- Disruption of incumbents: As the disruptive innovation continues to grow and mature, it begins to displace the established products or services in the market. Incumbent firms may struggle to adapt or compete, leading to a decline in market share, or even their eventual obsolescence.
Relevance to the Space Economy
The space economy, which encompasses all the economic activities related to the research, development, production, and utilization of space assets, has been undergoing significant changes in recent years, with disruptive innovations playing a crucial role in this transformation.
Some key examples of disruptive innovations in the space economy include:
- Reusable rocket technology: Companies like SpaceX have revolutionized the space industry with their reusable rocket technology, dramatically reducing the cost of access to space. This innovation has enabled a broader range of players to enter the market, fostering greater competition and further driving down costs.
- Small satellite platforms: The development of small satellites (CubeSats, NanoSats, and MicroSats) has allowed for cheaper, faster, and more frequent satellite launches. This has opened up opportunities for new applications in Earth observation, communications, and scientific research, as well as enabling smaller companies and even universities to participate in the space industry.
- Commercial space stations and habitats: Companies such as Axiom Space and Blue Origin are working on developing commercial space stations and habitats, with the aim of providing cost-effective platforms for research, tourism, and manufacturing in microgravity environments.
These disruptive innovations have the potential to reshape the space economy by creating new markets, increasing competition, and reducing barriers to entry. Established players in the space industry, will need to adapt and innovate in order to stay competitive and maintain their market share in the face of these disruptive forces.